Movement disorders involve either abnormal decrease in movement or increase in movement. Parkinson disease is a common disorder with decreased movement (hypokinetic), and Essential tremor is the most common disorder with excessive movement (hyperkinetic).
Stroke is the common term for damage to the brain due to problems with the blood vessels in the head or neck. Stroke can be considered a “brain attack,” involving brain damage due to blood flow difficulties.
A seizure occurs when a person has an episode of excessive and abnormal electrical discharges in the brain. This can result in various symptoms, including tonic (rigid) posturing, clonic (shaking) activity, staring, repetitive behaviors, or other symptoms. These symptoms may involve the whole body or only part of the body.
Dementia is an umbrella term used to refer to the host of diseases that cause a decline in memory and other mental abilities of an individual. Most conditions and diseases classified under dementia are caused by neurodegenerative changes occurring in the brain, meaning that the brain breaks down over time.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder, meaning that the outside myelin “sheath” of the nerve cell axons that help insulate them to allow signals to pass more effectively is broken down. It is presumed to be autoimmune in nature, although this is not yet well understood. MS involves the central nervous system and spares the peripheral nervous system.
Headache – which involves a pain primarily centered in the head – is profoundly common. While Primary Care and Emergency Medicine providers often seen people who suffer from headache, the Neurologist is truly the best expert in this matter. The majority of headaches are primary headaches – suggesting that they have no underlying worrisome cause.